vietnam is located in southeastern asia, eastern indochina.covering an area of nearly 330,000 square kilometers, 1600 km long from north to south, more than 3200 km long coastline and only 50 km narrowest from east to west, it is one of the most long and narrow countries in the world.like china, japan, north korea and south korea, vietnam is also a member of the traditional confucian culture circle.
one.unlike japan, north korea and south korea, vietnam is the only country to have long been directly under china's rule.it has a millennium's north patriarchal history and eventually separates itself from china and develops its own unique language and culture.this situation is also quite interesting because in such a region historically dominated by china and directly under the influence of culture, vietnam is the only independent nation to date and all others are now part of china.what is the reason for vietnam to finally get out of china? millennium north
vietnam has been directly under the rule of china four times in history.from the time of 111 bc, the han dynasty broke through the south vietnam state(some also said that the first beijin period began in the first 207 bc qin zhao said"king of south vietnam, the establishment of the south vietnam state began) until 1427 ad ming xuanzong to"over the years, one side did not settle down, and frequently soldier wang shi ordered the withdrawal of troops from jiaotai so far.there are four intermediate intermittent periods directly under the rule of china.four historical records were made during the northern period:
a period of the northern genus:207 years ago(or 111 bc) to 39 ad; 246 years(or 150 years) in total
sister rebellion in ad 40(sixteen years of the eastern han dynasty jianwu), jiaozhou erupted by the syrian sisters led the vietnam nationals uprising, the first time the north ended.
the second northern genus:from 43 ad to 544 ad; a total of 501 years 43 years, gen.han fubo flat against rebel forces, killing the rebel zheng's sister.jurisdiction, the beginning of the second gentrification.
44 years, han ma will rebel against during this period, vietnam has been placed under the rule of the eastern han dynasty, jiaocheng shihs regime, soochow, cao wei, jin dynasty, liu song, nan qi and nan liang.541 years, jiaozhou outbreak of li ben uprising.544, li ben emperor, the establishment of wan chunguo regime, marking the end of the second genus.
the third genus period:from ad 602 to ad 939; a total of 337 years
vietnam during this time in china's sui dynasty under the rule of the tang dynasty and the transition to the wuchao period of independence and founding of the nation, liu fangping, the general of sui wendi, sent the general li changzi to the founding of li chaozi in 602 and immediately placed the northern part of vietnam directly under the rule of the sui dynasty.>
in 621, the tang dynasty replaced sui dynasty and continued to rule annan, and set up prefectures and jiedushih and other military and government officials to administer the area, but during the third beijin period, there were many civil conflicts broke out , and repeatedly harassed by the surrounding countries.to the late tang and five dynasties, qu chengyu become static sea festival.in 937(ten years in south han dynasty), military intervention took place in jiaozhou in south han dynasty, and occupation of jiaozhou as self-reliance by vietnamese nobility was revoked.as a result, vietnamese people gradually gained autonomy, marking the end of the third beijin period.
the northern wu dynasty in vietnam
from ad 1407 to ad 1427; a total of 20 years
in 1400, vietnam's chen chao was usurped by the hu clan and the chen dynasty came to the ming court to prosecute hu jiya and his son, loyal", asked the ming troops to"capture the thieves, swinging evil spirits, complex chen's descendants."in 1406, the ming army southward, and soon after the rampage of the hu dynasty, the ming court took the chen and his descendants to be slaughtered by the hu's family, without inheritance, so set up in vietnam,"political department","at the address and other places sentenced to prosecutors division"and other government departments, will be directly under the jurisdiction.ming dynasty zhu di once again annexation of vietnam
but the ming dynasty the reign aroused the disgust and rebellion of the vietnamese people, especially the most influential liru of the blue mountains and ended the genocide after the anti-ming ten-year war(1418-1427).formal independence
china in the 10th century was torn apart and war continued.the chaotic situation in the late tang led to the central plains dynasty's uncontrolled intensification of border areas.vietnam during this period was under the rule of the south han dynasty in china.however, the weak southern han, unable to control vietnam.in 937(a decade for the south han dynasty), the mutiny took place in jiaozhou and the revolt of the vietnamese right of the nobility occupied the territory of jiaozhou for self-reliance.after the death of wu quan, the leader of vietnam was unmanaged, the"twelve ambassadors for the liberation army"broke out.ad 963(south han dabao six years, the northern song jianlong four years) ding department collar and his son ding lianping"twelve envoys", self-reliance as the king,"wansheng wang."at this time, the northern song regime has not unified china.ding department collar to its sub-ding yi's name to the south han regime for closure, the south han ding ding for the static navy jedi.the establishment of the dynasty marks the formal independence of vietnam.
in 968(eleven years in the southern han dynasty and six years in the northern song dynasty), due to the precariousness of the south han dynasty, ding department called himself"the great emperor of ming dynasty,"imitating the chinese palace, national founding number, known as"big qu yue."since then, viet nam has emerged from the feudal rule of china and established an independent feudal nation.it began the dynastic dynasty of the founding of vietnam in its history.
two song and vietnam war
after the establishment of the dprk, the central government sent a seal to the song dynasty that unified the central plains.song taizu adopted a policy of good neighborliness and accepted the request of ding department's collar.in 980 ad, the dynasty rights minister li huan usurped the throne, and drove the ding xuan and the empress dowager out of the palace to be kept under house arrest.the news spread to the northern song dynasty, emperor taizong was furious, sending sun quanxing rate army soldiers, liu cheng rate of water and gas troops offensive vietnam, intends to punish lihuan, but eventually failed, vietnam's independence has been strengthened;
ad 1075 year(vietnam four years rather too, the northern song dynasty xining eight years) between november and 1076(viet nam five years ningning, the northern song dynasty xining nine years) in december, the vietnam li dynasty and northern song once again broke out the war.the reason is that vietnam li chao believes that the northern song dynasty will once again sooner or later attack on vietnam, and thus take the initiative to attack.led by general li changjie, breaking qinzhou, lianzhou, zhuozhou and other places in china.in the battle of zhuozhou, zhi zhou su mu struggling to resist, the city died after burning.while li jun is killing a large line, massacring hundreds of thousands of people in the three states of chin, lian, and prisoners and taking prisoners and returning to the people.then song dynasty counterattack, defeated the vietnamese army, and kill the more lord red true prince.li zhaoren reconciliation, at the same time return the captive song civilians.the song dynasty also did not continue to expand the war because of heavy casualties.central dynasty to abandon vietnam
to give up the first chance to reunify vietnam
the second session of the song and yuan dynasties both sides won, but big song court finally decided not to continue crusading vietnam, part of which is because vietnam itself started strong, captured vietnam itself will also cause tremendous casualties; the other hand, when china is not keen on blind expansion of the edge.some people think that the song-yue war was given wang anshi's intention and support and intended to promote the smooth implementation of the reform through the function of expanding the frontier.however, from the result of the failure of the song dynasty to be succeeded by 30% in the early stages of the war, kind of argument simply untenable.give up the second chance to reunify vietnam
during the fourth northern gendarmerie, the ming dynasty should be sent back to vietnam to exterminate the usurped usurper of the joseon legacies.however, after the demise of the joseon dynasty, because of the cut-off by chen choson, the ming dynasty set up the"command and enforcement division in the crossroads"and the"declaration and enforcement division at the crossroads"in vietnam.officials, will be directly under the jurisdiction of the government, to take advantage of customs and promote confucianism education policy.
however, the ming dynasty provoked widespread resistance in vietnam.fight more and more intense, lasted 20 years.after the most intense cingming ten-year war, the ming dynasty ended its rule in vietnam and withdrew its troops from annan.at this time of the ming dynasty, the peak of the country, and livelihood in vietnam is depressing, if the ming dynasty decided to make a comeback judging.however, the casualties were indeed too large, and the occupation of annan did not play much role for the ming dynasty.the biggest threat to the ming dynasty will always come from the north.after weighing the gains and losses, ming finally decided not to spend energy in annan.he withdrawn his troops in the name of"one of the two sides who did not serve for many years and frequently worked hard for many years,"and never again dabbled in vietnam.the sino-vietnamese border war that took place in the late 1970s is an interesting episode.even naïve countries think that china is also able to bully him!