physicist, leo szilard, once said to his friend, hans bethe, he prepared to write a diary:"i don't intend to publish.i just want to write down the facts and provide the reference for the god."
"don't god know the facts?"betty asked.
"know,"said szilard,"he knew the facts, but the fact that he didn't know that."-hans christian von bayer"conquer atoms"
welcome, welcome.congratulations, congratulations.i am glad that you succeeded.i know, it is not easy to come into this world.in fact, i think you know more difficult than others.
first of all, you came to this world, now trillions of free atoms have to together in a certain way, to create complex and unique way for you.this arrangement is very special, very special, never had in the past, there is only one.
after many years, the small particles will work hard to billions of times, clever cooperation, keep you in good condition, let you experience a very comfortable and pleasant journey, that is life.
-bill bryson"a brief history of everything
"a brief history of| excerpts from
in the universe is formed 10 billion years ago, or 20 billion years ago, or in the form of between 10 billion to 20 billion.
the cosmologists have been debated for a long time.everyone seems to be more and more in favor of:this number about 13.7 billion.
however, this kind of thing is very difficult to calculate.in fact, we can only say, in the very distant past, in an uncertain moment, because i don't know the reason, science called t=0 moment arrived.we went on a journey.
of course, there are a lot of things we don't know, there are a lot of things we are now or in the past for a long time thought i knew but don't really know.even the big bang theory is also proposed some time ago.
this concept has been popular since the 1920 s, was a belgian priest named george flamel's first puts forward the assumption and scholars.but it was not until the 1960 s, this theory only in the universe.at that time, two young radio astronomers stumbled on a remarkable phenomenon.
their names respectively called arno penzias and robert wilson.in the united states in 1965, they keep del's bell labs in new jersey and wanted to use a large communication antenna, but being a background noise, a continuous steam of hiss, makes the experiment could not proceed.
the noise is buzzing around, very not focus.it comes from each position of the sky, day and night, all the year round.
a year, two young astronomers try, the way to trace and remove the noise.they picked up the broom and cloth again climbed into the paraboloid antenna, and carefully put them later in a paper called"white dielectric", with more often be swept clean bird droppings.but their efforts to the slightest doesn't work.
they don't know, just 50 km outside of princeton university, a group of scientists headed by robert dick is trying to find, is that the two astronomers want to remove the things.
at princeton university researchers are studying in the 1940 s was born in the soviet union astrophysicist george gamow puts forward assumption:if you see the depths of space, you will find some kind of cosmic background radiation, left over from the big bang.
gamow, estimates that after radiation through the vastness of the universe, will reach the earth in the form of microwave.in the recently published a paper, he even put forward can use an instrument to this end, this instrument is the bell antenna holm, del.
unfortunately, whether penzias and wilson, nor any expert at princeton university team, have not seen gamow papers.
penzias and wilson hear noise, is the assumption of gamow.they have found the edge of the universe, at least, is the visible universe 150 light-years away.they are"watching"the first protons-the oldest light in the universe-certainly not gamow expected, time and distance has turned them into the microwave.
alan ancient thought in his book"the expanding universe", proposed one kind, is conducive to straighten this position.
if you look to the depths of the universe is sometimes compared to the empire state building in new york in the united states in 100 to look down on the layer(assuming that 100 layer represents now, street level represents the moment of the big bang) and so on penzias and wilson found the phenomenon, has been found that the farthest galaxy is about 60 layer, the furthest thing, quasars, is in about 20 floors.penzias and wilson have found that our understanding of the visible universe on the floor of the hall of about 1 cm.
penzias and wilson still can't find the cause of the noise, then call dick of princeton university, describes their problem to him, hope he can make an explanation.dick immediately realized what found two young men."oh, what a guy, family grabs in front of us."he hung up, a face said his colleagues.
shortly thereafter, published two articles in the journal astrophysics:one for penzias and wilson, describes the heard the hiss of experience;another for dick group, explains the nature of it.
although penzias and wilson is not in the search for the cosmic background radiation, found also don't know what is it, also does not have any papers published to describe or explain the nature of it, but they won the 1978 nobel prize for physics.princeton university researchers only won the sympathy.
according to dennis ofer than in the context of"the universe lonely hearts", said penzias and wilson are not clear the significance of this finding, until you see a report on the new york times.
by the way, the interference from the cosmic background radiation, all of us have experienced.turn your tv to any channel that receive no signal, you can see in the sawtooth electrostatic, about 1% are caused by the old remnants of the big bang.remember, next time when you complain that receive less than the image, you can always watch the birth of the universe.
"a brief history of all things, the author:[us] bill bryson, yanweiming/chen yong(eds);the european commission cartesian science award winning entries, the royal society aventis prize-winning works, the united states in the journal science one of the best scientific works, the text has been translated into nearly 40 countries and regions.this is a popular science books about the history of modern science, the author with the technique of clear, humor humor and wit, the big bang to what happened in the process of development of human civilization is various interesting stories one by one's income.
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