at pennsylvania state university rechtsman lab
as far as we know, we human beings only in three spatial dimensions(plus a time dimension) up and down, around and around the world experience.but in two physical laboratory, said scientists had found a fourth spatial dimension method(the following content may be difficult to understand).
this is not the fourth dimension, you can disappear or something similar.on the contrary, two physicists team designed special two-dimensional settings, one is the ultracold atoms, the other is a lighter particles.both show a different but complementary results, these results look like in four dimensional"quantum hall effect".these experiments might be in fundamental science have important meaning, can even let engineers in our low dimension to obtain higher physics.
"physics, we have no 4 d space systems, but we can use this to access the low dimensional systems 4 d quantum hall effect, because of higher system is coded into more complex structures.maybe we can in the new physics is proposed on the higher dimensions, and then design the use in the lower dimension higher device physics of the operation."
there are three spatial dimensions, or by keeping everything else remains the same direction.along a line, moving in one direction.at right angles to the line, and then add a second dimension to move forward and backward, imagine a square.to make a right angle, then enter the third spatial dimension.you can move up and down, this is a cube.if there is a fourth dimension, you can create another angle, and create a cube.a fourth spatial dimension can be described with mathematical, but it is not on the physical implementation.
but, think about it:a 3 d graphics left a 2 d's shadow.by observing the shadow, we can gather some information about the 3 d objects.perhaps by looking at some real world of physical systems, we can through the 3 d world leave a four-dimensional shadow to get to know the four-dimensional nature.
in every new experiments, the core is the quantum hall effect:when electrons are restricted to two-dimensional, as if they were stuck on the surface of a piece of paper, such as in graphene or in the some of the semiconductor layer), and a vertical magnetic field through the film, some of the electrical characteristics of the system has been restricted to the precise numerical multiples.mathematics, said the other consequence of the quantum hall effect should be measured in four dimensional space system, but we don't have four spatial dimension to test the physical quantities.
the european team of physicists with two-dimensional laser capture elements of rubidium atoms, the experimental device like a in the case of the atom, the border is controlled by laser.this creates a two-dimensional quantum"charge pump", allowing them to simulate the charge transport.additional parameters based on the internal behavior of these atoms along each dimension coding, have the effect of two more space dimension.they will be able to use this system to measure the second number"chen", said the fourth dimension effect exists.
rechtsman team used the light through a series of waveguide, special glass or is used to control the shape of light waves.it looks like the rows of a rectangle prism fiber optic cable.these cable coupling light can travel between the cutting edge.by swinging optical fiber in the background, they can simulate the electric field of the influence of charged particles(photons).the researchers observed light to device relative edges and corners.this will be related to the 4 d quantum hall effect physical effect.
these two experimental filled the four dimensional effect of the two.germany-ludwig maximilians university's michael lohse said:"i think the two experiments are complementary to each other.in the simplest sense, most of the first group of scientists are studying the physical system of the four dimensional effect, while a second group of studies on the edge of the same system effect."
in order to study the effect, two teams have more work to do.lohse and rechtsman said they atoms and photons in the system will not influence each other.they want to see how the effect in the interactive system.
rechtsman said:"there is a problem, it is real solid materials with complex unit cell is the hidden features, as well as their physical properties can in higher dimensional physics previously unavailable.can let us for complex geometry material at all stages of a new understanding?"