on July 28, 1976, is past midnight, the clock points to three o 'clock in the morning.In the industrial town of tangshan in north China extremely dull air shrouded.At this time in the outdoor shade people see northeast rose series of colorful beams, and like a strong light, the earth as bright as day.The beam pattern plate shaped scatter, such as the rainbow over, some like a light foaming at the mouth, some like ball is erratic.Light color colorful, especially like silver, blue, white, purple, etc rare composite color at ordinary times is mind-boggling.High opinions differ, the last time has long have short.The fireball in tangshan suburb of ignition into cancer, burned rice fields.Some primary school when I saw that, thought it was the morning, back up your schoolbag go to school, the results and made a joke.Flame, the earth began to tremble, after a few seconds, tangshan became ruins.
this is why?
it turns out that this is a kind of strong earthquake precursors, known as the gigantic.
many of strong earthquake is accompanied by photoluminescence.This special creepy natural phenomena, as early as in thousands of years ago has been noticed.China is the earliest recorded gigantic country in the world, ancient books in the book of songs "since the turn of the lesser, October was described 2800 years ago in shaanxi zones singular acousto-optic phenomenon during the earthquake.Wrote in the book, "shall shake electricity, restless don't make. Bacc the boiling, extraction collapse mountain home. High land of the valley, deep canyons for ling."The language of "the electricity" and shall, is refers to the shiny gigantic.As written in the book is a week of October, equivalent to the lunar August now, at this time zones, baoji thunderstorm season is over, "thunder" October is obviously misinformation, gigantic phenomenon should be before the earthquake.Later in other historical data, there are many records about gigantic, such as the "green light flashing,", "like a midnight to dawn day" and "midnight suddenly red", "red light back to city", "red light in the sky, such as horse practice" and so on, more numerous.
abroad, gigantic also has attracted widespread attention.The earliest records can be found in the Roman historian tower "Chronicles of the west, it is the story of the earthquake took place in 17 years, Asia minor.Book a people have seen the sky before the earthquake fire.Japan's gigantic records also early, according to Japanese seismologists Ann well feng speculate that the earliest Japanese gigantic records can be traced back to 1500 years ago, it's a pity that the conjecture WuShiJu.Real ShuLu is documented in 869 AD, a memoir, "the three generations, the book in earthquake and tsunami, the account of Mr Lu area mentioned luminescence phenomenon, has more than 1100 years ago.
the people long ago know to predict earthquakes by gigantic effect, our country the ancients to summarize six earthquake precursors, one is gigantic."Midnight dark black, days suddenly bright, light, like Japan, earthquake."This kind of description has appeared in many books.But gigantic as a kind of peculiar natural phenomenon, is people in scientific exploration, is after the 18th century.According to the Japanese earthquake historical data record, on December 5, 1703 yen lu before the 8.2 magnitude earthquake, there was a scholar in the study after local singular glow in the sky, officials warned that the tokugawa shogunate to night will have a strong thunderstorms and earthquake.He was noticed the relation with light, it is valuable.The middle of the 18th century, when Britain and northern Europe area frequently occurred earthquake, and repeatedly with gigantic flicker.At the time of the royal society a meeting to discuss the problem, the British scholar William figure first tried to use clay surface current to explain the reasons of the gigantic, natural, his understanding of the is wrong.At the beginning of the 20th century, the Italian scholar rizzo first glow especially detailed investigation to the earthquake, he in Italy on September 8, 1905 light phenomenon calabria earthquake conducted extensive research.Under his influence, another scholar, Gary also widely collected in Europe, 148 cases of luminescent material, the earthquake in 1910, the Italian earthquake institute report, published research papers.
since the 1930 s, the earthquake light of research into the overall development stage, the real existence of gigantic for people no longer feel suspicious, and began to explain the theoretical hypothesis of the phenomenon.In these studies especially in Japan's lead.After 1965, the Japanese scholar Ann Wells and the kondo five lang, LiLinHeng using magnetometer, rotary collector and so on has carried on the observational studies, and took the first a gigantic picture in the world.In 1974, Chinese scholars Mr. Ma in all previous larger since the xingtai earthquake after the macroscopic phenomena of imminent earthquake, put forward the "gigantic not only is the result of the earthquake is derived, and the unified process should be regarded as the imminent common development".That is to say, we should put the gigantic associated with the other phenomena that appears at the same time with it.As the phenomenon of gigantic data accumulation, people from the complex form of gigantic comprehend is the cause of it is not a single.Due to the time of the gigantic short, and every chance, the last gigantic data is often a lack of exact detail specification, especially until the today, haven't solve the problem of instrument observation technology, so the study on formation cause of the gigantic haven't exactly in the earthquake as a result, still in the stage of hypothesis.
gigantic is generated by the relative friction block.Milne is a long career in the field of geologists, one day, he in the field to collect rock and mineral specimens, fall in the hands of the hammer on the hard rock, and splashed out on Mars.Milne have derived inspiration from this kind of phenomenon, is the first proposed the gigantic rock relative motion when the earthquake light phenomenon, which is generated by the friction.In 1954, the former Soviet union scholar bond schaefer, the earthquake also shine compared to water chestnut and stone road collisions and sparks.
this is a useful attempt to explore the gigantic formation, but it's just explain to some form of gigantic sense, to the other forms of gigantic is work hard.For example, some gigantic occur in mid-air, seems to have nothing to do with the ground rock friction;Some gigantic was accompanied by a similar fluorescent lamp flashing automatically, it also cannot be explained by friction colours.This view is also hard to show in the quake zone wide range can be observed that the gigantic and the reason of the spherical and cylindrical light.Because according to the hypothesis of rock friction light-emitting gigantic should mainly distributed near the fracture belt, and the distribution of fractures in the same direction, the luminous part should be close to the ground.In 1975, for example, liaoning sea during an earthquake, the city county was seen daqingshan magnesite area appears strong white light, it has to do with the area of fracture distribution, and close to the ground, for 2 ~ 3 seconds, there is no obvious flicker, and then suddenly disappeared.This kind of gigantic can explain with rock friction light perspective, but in order to explain all the gigantic, obviously is not comprehensive.
according to the theory of capillary water potential.Japanese scholars temple Tian Yinyan idle, to the electric phenomenon very interested in physics.When he saw the relative movement between liquid and solid, often accompanied by some electricity phenomenon, namely in the liquid and solid contact surface layer appears on two unlike charges.If the liquid through a solid capillary under pressure, you will appear in the ends of the capillary potential difference, this is the flow potential.The scholar has led to a capillary water germination potential theory, try to get a magazines in gigantic cause problem.He thinks, a powerful earthquake affected by the range of depth can be affected with the ground.Within the scope of the depth of the earthquake, the groundwater is extruded, then moving up through the pores of the rock, the potential to produce flow.Temple land speculation, groundwater by pressure, pressure produced by the equivalent of 100 km thick rock pillars.According to the calculation, it produced by potential difference can be up to 3 million volts.Obviously, such a huge potential to lead to high altitude discharge, form a gigantic.Temple field theory was given day the support of some scholars, but most scholars in the world of this theory.Especially American scholar MacDonald temple field calculation of 3 million v electrical potential difference.The American envisages a potential difference of all possible causes for the interior of the earth, the pressure produced during the underground nuclear explosion is studied on groundwater flows through the influence of the streaming potential of the pores in rock and soil, the result found that, within the scope of the depth of 300 meters, can produce the biggest potential difference of only a few hundred millivolts.Even if the effects of earthquakes can reach 100 km depth, potential difference generated by only a few hundred volts, much smaller than temple, tian said.In such a small potential difference, it is not likely to cause atmospheric glow.
the water capillary potential theory, in this way.
quartz piezoelectric effect.Finkelstein and Powell, who is after americans MacDonald water main opponents of capillary potential theory.They after the overthrow of the Japanese scholar theory, put forward the piezoelectric effect of quartz, said attempts to use to explain the formation of gigantic electric potential difference.
in 1970, finkelstein and Powell was first discovered the seismogenic process of piezoelectric effect of quartz.
scientists in physics experiment, found that many crystal when squeezed or stretching, can produce the opposite charge on the two surfaces, this phenomenon is called the piezoelectric effect.Today, it has been widely applied to various kinds of electronic equipment and instruments, and is widely used in missiles, computers, aerospace, and other cutting-edge technology.Piezoelectric quartz is such a kind of crystal.Because quartz is widely distributed in the earth's crust, earthquakes are rock stress burst performance for a long time, you can imagine, the seismogenic process must also have a piezoelectric effect.Two scholars concluded that when the quartz in regular arrangement in the crust, if arranged along the long axis of the total length of quartz crystal, equivalent to the wavelength of seismic wave, can produce seismic electric effect.If the pressure of the pressure of 30 ~ 330 mpa, there could be 500-5000 average electric field of v/cm.Enough to cause the electric field during a storm like lightning as low discharge phenomenon, gigantic.Because of the piezoelectric effect is not necessarily the only when the earthquake happened, so a few hours before an earthquake can see gigantic.
if according to this theory, gigantic should occur only in certain distribution of directional arrangement of a large number of quartz crystal area, but is actually a gigantic the meizoseismal area of the underground rock are not all quartzite, but a variety of rock, regardless of the nature of the underground rock, but has the possibility of a gigantic, the actual situation and the quartz piezoelectric effect theory is not consistent.In addition, quartz piezoelectric effect theory can not explain observed in some region is extremely unique "electric magnetic storm" phenomenon.
more difficult to explain the strange phenomenon.In 1966, the Soviet union in a few hours before the earthquake, tashkent suddenly an electric magnetic storms over the tashkent.The bright white light in the sky like a spotlight, make people dizzy.What is more surprising, indoor fluorescent lamp without self-igniting.Scientists observed ionospheric electron density in the peak.
this gigantic singular characteristics, obviously it is difficult to use the previous several hypotheses to explain.
in 1972, the Japanese scholar Ann well feng put forward the idea of oscillations in the lower atmosphere.They think that because the atmosphere contains all kinds of positive and negative ions, so the earth has a weak electrical conductivity.When the gases of the atmosphere molecules by cosmic rays from space and radioactive rays hit the earth itself, the result that the gas ion charge.Earthquake zones are often a radon as the main component of radioactive material, tectonic earthquake shaking it into the atmosphere, especially in containing a higher proportion of radioactive material, acidic rock distribution area and near the fault, radon levels in the atmosphere will be significantly increased, it will also make the atmospheric ion conductivity increased.But if there is a natural electric field on the ground, it will discharge the air mass, the gigantic flicker.
China's earthquake workers in liaoning province was studied after haicheng earthquake, found that radon content significantly increased before the earthquake, CLP ion atmosphere also increased significantly, the charge concentration areas form over the earthquake zone, the conductivity of the atmosphere increased, under the action of electric field on the ground may occur glow discharge, large discharge and radon transformation to emit radiation may produce fluorescence, daylight shining.
this low-level atmospheric glow theory, is one of the more established hypothesis.However, some people think that the reason of strip lights shine is associated with the high frequency of seismic waves when the earthquake.
in addition, the proposed recently, and some clay minerals content is also one of the gigantic light source;There are people to put forward the relationship between rock friction heat generating and gigantic, and consider the formation of the electric field.These views are not satisfactorily explain the genesis of gigantic.
from the existing data, gigantic light phenomenon is during an earthquake with a variety of causes.To unrael the mysteries of the formation of it thoroughly, we must strengthen the scientific observation of gigantic, to use modern advanced technology and equipment, in particular, in a timely manner to capture the gigantic signals, and carefully distinguish between different types, will eventually understand the gigantic secret.
Chinese geophysicists guo self-improvement through experiments of rock fracturing, recently learned that the rock burst in stress, emit strong electron flow.Before the earthquake, rock burst by crustal stress, also can produce energetic electrons, the electron flow through the earth's crust cracks into the atmosphere, make the air ionization caused gigantic, this is the latest interpretation of gigantic in the world.