product: science China
: astronomy department of Beijing normal university the beauty of the universe science team xu wen Tong-jie zhang
producers: the computer network information center, Chinese academy of sciences, China
in the vast universe, there are deep sky, the moon, the earth, galaxy, has been to the cluster and the big scale structure, and of course our insignificance of man.We human beings come from?Life consists of what elements?What is the relationship between these elements and the big bang?This a series of problems has been solved the along with the development of the theory and technology of astronomy.From Galileo telescope toward the sky, for the first time in 1609 to 500 meters, the world's largest caliber spherical radio telescope FAST completion in guizhou karst depression of the pit, ranging from visible light to radio wave, infrared and ultraviolet, astronomy has ushered in the observation of all band era.As an important branch of astronomy, cosmology, with its precise, rigorous scientific characteristics attracted astronomers, we can call it poetic image of science, and the origin of life in the universe has a direct relationship.Why say so?Let's start with the big bang.
figure 1: different bands and height corresponding to the astronomical instruments of
figure 2: Steven Weinberg, "the first three minutes"
the first three minutes
in 1929, the famous astronomer Hubble confirmed galaxies redshift and distance between "a rough linear relationship", also known as Hubble's law, i.e., the farther from our galaxy, far away from our speed.In 1932, the Belgian famous physicist flamel is put forward, now the universe is composed of an extreme heat, density of the original big bang atom, his this assumption the embryonic form of the big bang cosmology.Based on in-depth study of the two great scientists, in 1984, Russian scientists in the United States gamow using nuclear and elementary particle physics, linked with the expansion of the universe, set up the elements to form the big bang theory - the big bang theory.
figure 3: Georges Lemaitre, Belgium astronomer
figure 4: the Hubble's law: the horizontal distance, vertical said regression speed.
the big bang, the first important prediction is the synthesis of light elements.In a few short minutes after the big bang, formed light element H, He and Li, determine the amount and type of the lighter elements, this process is our posterity is called "the universe first 3 minutes.The three minutes is the incubation period of life in the universe.
figure 5: the prototype of the big bang cosmology
figure 6: hydrogen fusing helium atom
the stars in the world of the formation of the heavy
the big bang theory predicts that the early universe is a hot place, at the beginning of the big bang, the temperature of the universe or can reach 10 billion degrees Celsius, and full of neutrons and protons, electrons and positrons and electrons.About the formation of the late heavy elements, the scientists found that a lot of heavy elements nucleus is combined with a large amount of light elements, later scientists refer to as nuclear fusion, namely from a lighter atoms formed after fusion is heavier than it of other atoms.For example, by hydrogen fusion to form helium atoms.Of course, this need to be very tough conditions, only at high temperature and under great pressure to make the bondage of extranuclear electron out of the nucleus, causing collisions, generate new quality heavier nuclei.
in the same way, in the big bang of the first three minutes, hydrogen as the nucleus of lighter elements, after high temperature and high pressure - deuterium elements can form hydrogen isotope, deuterium element coupled with a hydrogen atoms to form helium, and so on, after will form helium, the process of a series from light to heavy elements we call it the big bang nucleosynthesis.
figure 7: cosmic evolution diagram time
based on the principle of massive stars burning helium nuclei to form heavier elements, such as carbon, oxygen, silicon, sulfur and iron, then the elements heavier than iron are formed?Science shows that the formation of heavy elements there are two ways, one is the supergiant outside, at about 1 billion degrees Celsius, neon won a helium nuclei formed by magnesium, at about 1.5 billion degrees Celsius when oxygen also started to fusion, produce a series of heavier elements, such as sulfur, phosphorus and silicon, silicon began to fusion in about 3 billion degrees Celsius, and caused hundreds of kinds of nuclear reaction, temperature is higher and higher.This is the last stage of the star's life, the chemical reaction of sudden is becoming more and more strong, the heavier elements of the combustion time is shorter, we assume that a 25 times the mass of the sun star "standard", for the various elements in the star, carbon glowing combustion that persists for 600, neon is 1 year, oxygen is 6 months, and silicon is only 1 day.Nuclear transformation is not unlimited continue at this rate, the final will be toward an element collection: iron.
iron nuclei is special, the bind closely 56 protons and neutrons, not a fusion energy can make them apart, then, is the iron core of a massive star finally ashes.Star is by a core has stopped thermonuclear reaction and succession in the combustion of the outer, stars are constantly expanding its shell to adjust the balance, it will swell to a huge scale, become a supergiant.Second, supernova explosions, in a stable star, the theory of core temperature up to 6 billion K, more than the temperature, will let the stars lose stability, eventually perished in a huge explosion, while the elements heavier than iron are in high temperature and high pressure in the short term after the big bang.
figure 8: the large-scale structure of the universe
where life from
at the beginning of the universe in contains energy, only after the jump through again into the process of heating, as the universe's long evolution, gradually formed the middle school chemistry we learned more than 100 kinds of elements.As a human in the earth, our life is based on carbohydrates, every day we drink water, breathing oxygen is from the beginning of the universe.Can't imagine if we only had similar to hydrogen environment of light elements instead of lithium, these relatively heavy elements, such as carbon we are humans can survive., of course, all this has not happened in our reality of the universe, relative to the heavier elements is indispensable, the heavier elements, not from the big bang, but from the early massive stars, the fate of massive stars are short, they consume their own hydrogen, helium and lithium and other elements to form new the heavier elements.The heavier elements again condensed to form new planets and stars, Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP), according to atomic including protons and neutrons in the nucleus contains 4.4% of the mass and energy in the universe, and all life is born in the 4.4%, the formation of the first stars in the universe is formed after the big bang occurred after 200 million, it is enough to show that the formation of heavier elements is also need to experience quite a long process, so, what is "power" to form the planets or stars?The "power" is a very subtle, in the beginning of the big bang of a few seconds, subatomic ongoing "scale" movement, these tiny quantum disturbance promoted the birth of planets, stars in the universe and life.
disturbance is one of the types of material existence state of quantum random phenomena of nature, in these very small subatomic scales, the passage of these substances from 10 to 9 seconds to 1 second orders of magnitude, with the expansion of the universe, these tiny quantum perturbation has change start from the number of material, and moving from one place to another place.Regardless of the number and location of the change needs to be the universe the carrier, the change of the universe is a large scale change, if not the universe, so the planets or stars we see today is not exist, the universe will be full of cold mist particles.If there is no quantum perturbation, the quality of our universe will not be able to gather a small material to form massive material.
the formation of the planets all need such a long time, so we humans to form the most primitive state and is composed of elements, the process is not need more long?The origin of the universe from the high density high temperature environment, and the "appropriate" environment is our necessary conditions for the origin of human life.
figure 9: the expansion of the universe
harmonious beauty in the universe and human
the early universe are composed of a particle with among them, want to get on a large scale change is need time to show, if our universe is lasted only a second, or a year, or one million, we now know it will not be like, therefore the universe is made up of matter, energy and time to the basic rules to control, we now development is the experience was formed in 13.7 billion.With the evolution of the universe, at the right time and right place, the Milky Way in the solar system gives birth to the human civilization on earth.
so why on earth is born of our human?From the Angle of cosmology, how to explain?Mass and energy in the universe more, no less, just can support life in the universe.If too many matter in the universe, in before the formation of life, the universe is in the gravity collapse back;If the matter in the universe is too little, there is no enough mass to form stars, planets, life also can't form.In addition, the supernova observations and Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) confirmed the existence of dark energy, dark energy plays an anti-gravity, drive the accelerating expansion of the universe, with early dark energy, the universe will expand, life to develop.All in all, the current state of the universe, the density is not high also not low, that is in harmony with the evolution of the universe.
figure 10: beauty in ancient China
not harmonious, a country may change, be replaced by another dynasty.Clearly shows that today's U.S. presidential election, the United States social democracy has extreme disharmony, finally led to today's mess.In addition to describing the beauty in ancient China has "to add one part is too long, minus one part is too short" and "shi zhu is too red, the powder is white" and so on, the contour size reasonable collocation, let a person look at feast for the eyes, its nature is harmonious.In reality, we also are expected to harmony, such as the European air supersonic aircraft - Concorde (Concorde), China's bullet trains and high-speed also named for harmony, these suggest that the human yearning to harmony.English Cosmos of Chinese meaning is "harmony, order".Cosmology the word Cosmology, that emerges from the Cosmos implicit expectations of universal harmony.Cosmological theory and observation show that evolution of our universe is in perfect harmony, and evolved the life now.Conclusion
after such a long evolution, we human beings can survive in the universe, of course, inseparable from the harmonious, if the universe is not harmony and balance will be what happens?Our earth will happen earthquake, tsunami, avalanche, such as natural disasters, so look around in the universe, galaxy collisions, the outbreak of a supernova, and even an asteroid hit the earth...Let our universe is out of balance.
we don't know whether outside we recognize the universe and more intelligent life, but so far, the universe we see is good for our life to form, although there are many problems troubling us to explore, humans may also face the fate of extinction, but we are still exploring.The future of hundreds of millions of years, we live in the sun may be burned up to form a White Dwarf, there will be a lot of stars, such as a supernova when shock waves may spread to humans, affect our life, the search for extraterrestrial civilizations may be important for the future development of the human subject.
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